To help offer the best experience possible, Guilford uses cookies on its site. By browsing here, you acknowledge our terms of use. For more information, see our Cookie Policy.
You can also read Guilford's Privacy Policy.

Skip to main content

        All Access Pass: All Guilford journals, $49.95 for 30 days | Click on any article to purchase

Guidelines for International Training in Mental Health and Psychosocial Interventions for Trauma Exposed Populations in Clinical and Community Settings

Objective: To develop consensus-based guidelines for training in mental health and psychosocial interventions for trauma-exposed populations in the international arena.

Participants: The Task Force on International Trauma Training of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

Evidence: The Task Force engaged in a 1-year dialogue on the practice of international training, drawing upon field experience, literature review, and consultation with key informants.

Consensus Process: This statement was prepared on the basis of shared dialogue, consensus decision making, and a writing process involving all Task Force members. It was then disseminated for review to more than 200 professionals of more than 60 service and academic organizations. Written and oral suggestions from over 80 persons were incorporated and revisions made on the basis of consensus.

Conclusions: The generated guidelines addresses four dimensions: (1) values, (2) contextual challenges in societies during or after conflicts, (3) core curricular elements, and (4) monitoring and evaluation. The guidelines can improve international training in mental health and psychosocial interventions for trauma-exposed populations by providing principles and strategies intended to steer those who seek informed recommendations, to generate focused debates on areas where there is as yet no broad consensus, and to stimulate research and inquiry.


  • Belgrad , E. A., and Nachmias, N. The Politics of International Humanitarian Aid Operations. Praeger, 1997. Google Scholar
  • Danieli, Y., ed. Sharing the Front Line and the Back Hills, International Protectors and Providers: Peacekeepers, Humanitarian Aid Workers and the Media in the Midst of Crisis. Published for and on behalf of the United Nations by Baywood Publishing Company, 2001. Google Scholar
  • Danieli, Y., Rodley, N. S., and Weisaeth, L., eds. International Responses to Traumatic Stress: Humanitarian, Human Rights, Justice, Peace and Development Contributions, Collaborative Actions and Future Initiatives. Published for and on behalf of the United Nations by Baywood Publishing Company, 1996. Google Scholar
  • deJong J.T.V.M. Psychiatric problems related to persecution and refugee status. Contemporary Psychiatry (2000): 2: 279–298. Google Scholar
  • Henderson , S., and Weine, S. M. Mental Health Trauma Training on the World Wide Web. International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies 17th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, 2001. Google Scholar
  • Maynard , K. Healing Communities in Conflict: International Assistance in Complex Emergencies. Columbia University Press, 1999. Google Scholar
  • People in Aid Code of Best Practices, The. London, United Kingdom, 1997. Available at: www. Google Scholar
  • Perlez , J. State department faults U.S. aid for war refugees as inept. New York Times (2000, May 9) A1. Google Scholar
  • Silove , D. The psychosocial effects of torture, mass human rights violations and refugee trauma: Towards an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (1999) 187(4): 200–207. Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • Sphere Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response, The. Stylus Publishing, 2000. Available at: Google Scholar
  • Van Ommeren , M., Sharma, B., Prasain, D., and Poudyal, B. N. Addressing human rights violations: A public mental health perspective on helping torture survivors in Nepal. In J. T. V. M. de Jong JTVM, ed., Trauma, War and Violence: Public Mental Health in Socio-cultural Context. Plenum, 2002. Google Scholar
  • Walker , P., and Walter, J. World Disasters Report: Focus on Public Health. International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 2000. Google Scholar
  • Weine , S. M. International trauma training: Report on the task force. Stresspoints (2000) 14: 3–4. Google Scholar
  • Weine , S. M., Danieli, Y., Silove, D., and Van Ommeren, M. Guidelines for International Trauma Training. World Assembly for Mental Health 2001, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Google Scholar
  • Weine , S. M., Danieli, Y., Silove, D., Van Ommeren, M., Fairbank, J., and De Jong, J.T.V.M. Guidelines for International Trauma Training. International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies 16th Annual Meeting. San Antonio, TX, 2000. Google Scholar